Instalar Volatility no Debian e Ubuntu

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Hoje vamos mostrar como instalar o Volatility no Debian e Ubuntu. O volatility é um programa que tal como o rekall é utilizado para analisar um dump de memória e procurar informações importantes que estão em memória no momento da acquisição.

O rekall começou como sendo um fork do volatility, ambos seguiram com seu desenvolvimento com o objectivo de analisar dados em memória, no entanto o desenvolvimento de ambos tomou rumos um pouco diferentes e hoje cada um tem os seus prós e contras.

A instalação do volatility pode ser feita pelos repositórios oficiais do Debian e do Ubuntu, no entanto as vezes as versões disponíveis no repositório oficial pode estar um pouco desactualizada e por isso podemos querer usar a versão mais nova por causa de alguma como por exemplo correcções de bugs ou novas funções. Neste artigo vamos mostrar como é facil instalar o volatility no nosso sistema.

O volatility é um conjunto de programas e plugins escritos em python, no entanto ele (até ao momento de escrita deste artigo) somente suporta até a versão 2.6 ou superior do python, mas não a versão 3.0, a actualização para a versão 3.0 e superior ainda não foi feita. Tendo isto em conta devemos garantir que na nossa máquina temos a versão correcta do python instalada.

[php]$ sudo apt-get install python2.7[/php]

Para começar vamos copiar a versão mais recente do volatility no repositório oficial do GitHub com o seguinte comando.

[php]$ wget https://github.com/volatilityfoundation/volatility/archive/master.zip[/php]

De seguida vamos extrair o conteúdo do arquivo comprimido.

[php]$ unzip master.zip[/php]

Isto vai criar um directório com o nome volatility-master, dentro deste directório vamos encontrar o script vol.py que é o volatility em si. A partir deste momento já podemos começar a usar o volatility fazendo referencia ao script. Caso tenha mais de uma versão do python instalada na sua máquina lembre-se de referenciar a versão 2.7 para evitar que uma versão incompactivel seja utlizada.
Para obter mais informações sobre o volatility podemos usar seguinte comando.

[php]$ python2.7 vol.py –info

Volatility Foundation Volatility Framework 2.6

Plugins
——-
amcache – Print AmCache information
apihooks – Detect API hooks in process and kernel memory
atoms – Print session and window station atom tables
atomscan – Pool scanner for atom tables
auditpol – Prints out the Audit Policies from HKLM\SECURITY\Policy\PolAdtEv
bigpools – Dump the big page pools using BigPagePoolScanner
bioskbd – Reads the keyboard buffer from Real Mode memory
cachedump – Dumps cached domain hashes from memory
callbacks – Print system-wide notification routines
clipboard – Extract the contents of the windows clipboard
cmdline – Display process command-line arguments
cmdscan – Extract command history by scanning for _COMMAND_HISTORY
connections – Print list of open connections [Windows XP and 2003 Only]
connscan – Pool scanner for tcp connections
consoles – Extract command history by scanning for _CONSOLE_INFORMATION
crashinfo – Dump crash-dump information
deskscan – Poolscaner for tagDESKTOP (desktops)
devicetree – Show device tree
dlldump – Dump DLLs from a process address space
dlllist – Print list of loaded dlls for each process
driverirp – Driver IRP hook detection
drivermodule – Associate driver objects to kernel modules
driverscan – Pool scanner for driver objects
dumpcerts – Dump RSA private and public SSL keys
dumpfiles – Extract memory mapped and cached files
dumpregistry – Dumps registry files out to disk
editbox – Displays information about Edit controls. (Listbox experimental.)
envars – Display process environment variables
eventhooks – Print details on windows event hooks
evtlogs – Extract Windows Event Logs (XP/2003 only)
filescan – Pool scanner for file objects
gahti – Dump the USER handle type information
gditimers – Print installed GDI timers and callbacks
gdt – Display Global Descriptor Table
getservicesids – Get the names of services in the Registry and return Calculated SID
getsids – Print the SIDs owning each process
handles – Print list of open handles for each process
hashdump – Dumps passwords hashes (LM/NTLM) from memory
hibinfo – Dump hibernation file information
hivedump – Prints out a hive
hivelist – Print list of registry hives.
hivescan – Pool scanner for registry hives
hpakextract – Extract physical memory from an HPAK file
hpakinfo – Info on an HPAK file
idt – Display Interrupt Descriptor Table
iehistory – Reconstruct Internet Explorer cache / history
imagecopy – Copies a physical address space out as a raw DD image
imageinfo – Identify information for the image
impscan – Scan for calls to imported functions
joblinks – Print process job link information
kdbgscan – Search for and dump potential KDBG values
kpcrscan – Search for and dump potential KPCR values
ldrmodules – Detect unlinked DLLs
limeinfo – Dump Lime file format information
linux_apihooks – Checks for userland apihooks
linux_arp – Print the ARP table
linux_aslr_shift – Automatically detect the Linux ASLR shift
linux_banner – Prints the Linux banner information
linux_bash – Recover bash history from bash process memory
linux_bash_env – Recover a process’ dynamic environment variables
linux_bash_hash – Recover bash hash table from bash process memory
linux_check_afinfo – Verifies the operation function pointers of network protocols
linux_check_creds – Checks if any processes are sharing credential structures
linux_check_evt_arm – Checks the Exception Vector Table to look for syscall table hooking
linux_check_fop – Check file operation structures for rootkit modifications
linux_check_idt – Checks if the IDT has been altered
linux_check_inline_kernel – Check for inline kernel hooks
linux_check_modules – Compares module list to sysfs info, if available
linux_check_syscall – Checks if the system call table has been altered
linux_check_syscall_arm – Checks if the system call table has been altered
linux_check_tty – Checks tty devices for hooks
linux_cpuinfo – Prints info about each active processor
linux_dentry_cache – Gather files from the dentry cache
linux_dmesg – Gather dmesg buffer
linux_dump_map – Writes selected memory mappings to disk
linux_dynamic_env – Recover a process’ dynamic environment variables
linux_elfs – Find ELF binaries in process mappings
linux_enumerate_files – Lists files referenced by the filesystem cache
linux_find_file – Lists and recovers files from memory
linux_getcwd – Lists current working directory of each process
linux_hidden_modules – Carves memory to find hidden kernel modules
linux_ifconfig – Gathers active interfaces
linux_info_regs – It’s like ‘info registers’ in GDB. It prints out all the
linux_iomem – Provides output similar to /proc/iomem
linux_kernel_opened_files – Lists files that are opened from within the kernel
linux_keyboard_notifiers – Parses the keyboard notifier call chain
linux_ldrmodules – Compares the output of proc maps with the list of libraries from libdl
linux_library_list – Lists libraries loaded into a process
linux_librarydump – Dumps shared libraries in process memory to disk
linux_list_raw – List applications with promiscuous sockets
linux_lsmod – Gather loaded kernel modules
linux_lsof – Lists file descriptors and their path
linux_malfind – Looks for suspicious process mappings
linux_memmap – Dumps the memory map for linux tasks
linux_moddump – Extract loaded kernel modules
linux_mount – Gather mounted fs/devices
linux_mount_cache – Gather mounted fs/devices from kmem_cache
linux_netfilter – Lists Netfilter hooks
linux_netscan – Carves for network connection structures
linux_netstat – Lists open sockets
linux_pidhashtable – Enumerates processes through the PID hash table
linux_pkt_queues – Writes per-process packet queues out to disk
linux_plthook – Scan ELF binaries’ PLT for hooks to non-NEEDED images
linux_proc_maps – Gathers process memory maps
linux_proc_maps_rb – Gathers process maps for linux through the mappings red-black tree
linux_procdump – Dumps a process’s executable image to disk
linux_process_hollow – Checks for signs of process hollowing
linux_psaux – Gathers processes along with full command line and start time
linux_psenv – Gathers processes along with their static environment variables
linux_pslist – Gather active tasks by walking the task_struct->task list
linux_pslist_cache – Gather tasks from the kmem_cache
linux_psscan – Scan physical memory for processes
linux_pstree – Shows the parent/child relationship between processes
linux_psxview – Find hidden processes with various process listings
linux_recover_filesystem – Recovers the entire cached file system from memory
linux_route_cache – Recovers the routing cache from memory
linux_sk_buff_cache – Recovers packets from the sk_buff kmem_cache
linux_slabinfo – Mimics /proc/slabinfo on a running machine
linux_strings – Match physical offsets to virtual addresses (may take a while, VERY verbose)
linux_threads – Prints threads of processes
linux_tmpfs – Recovers tmpfs filesystems from memory
linux_truecrypt_passphrase – Recovers cached Truecrypt passphrases
linux_vma_cache – Gather VMAs from the vm_area_struct cache
linux_volshell – Shell in the memory image
linux_yarascan – A shell in the Linux memory image
lsadump – Dump (decrypted) LSA secrets from the registry
mac_adium – Lists Adium messages
mac_apihooks – Checks for API hooks in processes
mac_apihooks_kernel – Checks to see if system call and kernel functions are hooked
mac_arp – Prints the arp table
mac_bash – Recover bash history from bash process memory
mac_bash_env – Recover bash’s environment variables
mac_bash_hash – Recover bash hash table from bash process memory
mac_calendar – Gets calendar events from Calendar.app
mac_check_fop – Validate File Operation Pointers
mac_check_mig_table – Lists entires in the kernel’s MIG table
mac_check_syscall_shadow – Looks for shadow system call tables
mac_check_syscalls – Checks to see if system call table entries are hooked
mac_check_sysctl – Checks for unknown sysctl handlers
mac_check_trap_table – Checks to see if mach trap table entries are hooked
mac_compressed_swap – Prints Mac OS X VM compressor stats and dumps all compressed pages
mac_contacts – Gets contact names from Contacts.app
mac_dead_procs – Prints terminated/de-allocated processes
mac_dead_sockets – Prints terminated/de-allocated network sockets
mac_dead_vnodes – Lists freed vnode structures
mac_devfs – Lists files in the file cache
mac_dmesg – Prints the kernel debug buffer
mac_dump_file – Dumps a specified file
mac_dump_maps – Dumps memory ranges of process(es), optionally including pages in compressed swap
mac_dyld_maps – Gets memory maps of processes from dyld data structures
mac_find_aslr_shift – Find the ASLR shift value for 10.8+ images
mac_get_profile – Automatically detect Mac profiles
mac_ifconfig – Lists network interface information for all devices
mac_interest_handlers – Lists IOKit Interest Handlers
mac_ip_filters – Reports any hooked IP filters
mac_kernel_classes – Lists loaded c++ classes in the kernel
mac_kevents – Show parent/child relationship of processes
mac_keychaindump – Recovers possbile keychain keys. Use chainbreaker to open related keychain files
mac_ldrmodules – Compares the output of proc maps with the list of libraries from libdl
mac_librarydump – Dumps the executable of a process
mac_list_files – Lists files in the file cache
mac_list_kauth_listeners – Lists Kauth Scope listeners
mac_list_kauth_scopes – Lists Kauth Scopes and their status
mac_list_raw – List applications with promiscuous sockets
mac_list_sessions – Enumerates sessions
mac_list_zones – Prints active zones
mac_lsmod – Lists loaded kernel modules
mac_lsmod_iokit – Lists loaded kernel modules through IOkit
mac_lsmod_kext_map – Lists loaded kernel modules
mac_lsof – Lists per-process opened files
mac_machine_info – Prints machine information about the sample
mac_malfind – Looks for suspicious process mappings
mac_memdump – Dump addressable memory pages to a file
mac_moddump – Writes the specified kernel extension to disk
mac_mount – Prints mounted device information
mac_netstat – Lists active per-process network connections
mac_network_conns – Lists network connections from kernel network structures
mac_notesapp – Finds contents of Notes messages
mac_notifiers – Detects rootkits that add hooks into I/O Kit (e.g. LogKext)
mac_orphan_threads – Lists threads that don’t map back to known modules/processes
mac_pgrp_hash_table – Walks the process group hash table
mac_pid_hash_table – Walks the pid hash table
mac_print_boot_cmdline – Prints kernel boot arguments
mac_proc_maps – Gets memory maps of processes
mac_procdump – Dumps the executable of a process
mac_psaux – Prints processes with arguments in user land (**argv)
mac_psenv – Prints processes with environment in user land (**envp)
mac_pslist – List Running Processes
mac_pstree – Show parent/child relationship of processes
mac_psxview – Find hidden processes with various process listings
mac_recover_filesystem – Recover the cached filesystem
mac_route – Prints the routing table
mac_socket_filters – Reports socket filters
mac_strings – Match physical offsets to virtual addresses (may take a while, VERY verbose)
mac_tasks – List Active Tasks
mac_threads – List Process Threads
mac_threads_simple – Lists threads along with their start time and priority
mac_timers – Reports timers set by kernel drivers
mac_trustedbsd – Lists malicious trustedbsd policies
mac_version – Prints the Mac version
mac_vfsevents – Lists processes filtering file system events
mac_volshell – Shell in the memory image
mac_yarascan – Scan memory for yara signatures
machoinfo – Dump Mach-O file format information
malfind – Find hidden and injected code
mbrparser – Scans for and parses potential Master Boot Records (MBRs)
memdump – Dump the addressable memory for a process
memmap – Print the memory map
messagehooks – List desktop and thread window message hooks
mftparser – Scans for and parses potential MFT entries
moddump – Dump a kernel driver to an executable file sample
modscan – Pool scanner for kernel modules
modules – Print list of loaded modules
multiscan – Scan for various objects at once
mutantscan – Pool scanner for mutex objects
netscan – Scan a Vista (or later) image for connections and sockets
notepad – List currently displayed notepad text
objtypescan – Scan for Windows object type objects
patcher – Patches memory based on page scans
poolpeek – Configurable pool scanner plugin
pooltracker – Show a summary of pool tag usage
printkey – Print a registry key, and its subkeys and values
privs – Display process privileges
procdump – Dump a process to an executable file sample
pslist – Print all running processes by following the EPROCESS lists
psscan – Pool scanner for process objects
pstree – Print process list as a tree
psxview – Find hidden processes with various process listings
qemuinfo – Dump Qemu information
raw2dmp – Converts a physical memory sample to a windbg crash dump
screenshot – Save a pseudo-screenshot based on GDI windows
servicediff – List Windows services (ala Plugx)
sessions – List details on _MM_SESSION_SPACE (user logon sessions)
shellbags – Prints ShellBags info
shimcache – Parses the Application Compatibility Shim Cache registry key
shutdowntime – Print ShutdownTime of machine from registry
sockets – Print list of open sockets
sockscan – Pool scanner for tcp socket objects
ssdt – Display SSDT entries
strings – Match physical offsets to virtual addresses (may take a while, VERY verbose)
svcscan – Scan for Windows services
symlinkscan – Pool scanner for symlink objects
thrdscan – Pool scanner for thread objects
threads – Investigate _ETHREAD and _KTHREADs
timeliner – Creates a timeline from various artifacts in memory
timers – Print kernel timers and associated module DPCs
truecryptmaster – Recover TrueCrypt 7.1a Master Keys
truecryptpassphrase – TrueCrypt Cached Passphrase Finder
truecryptsummary – TrueCrypt Summary
unloadedmodules – Print list of unloaded modules
userassist – Print userassist registry keys and information
userhandles – Dump the USER handle tables
vaddump – Dumps out the vad sections to a file
vadinfo – Dump the VAD info
vadtree – Walk the VAD tree and display in tree format
vadwalk – Walk the VAD tree
vboxinfo – Dump virtualbox information
verinfo – Prints out the version information from PE images
vmwareinfo – Dump VMware VMSS/VMSN information
volshell – Shell in the memory image
win10cookie – Find the ObHeaderCookie value for Windows 10
windows – Print Desktop Windows (verbose details)
wintree – Print Z-Order Desktop Windows Tree
wndscan – Pool scanner for window stations
yarascan – Scan process or kernel memory with Yara signatures

Profiles
——–
Linuxubuntu-4_10_0-42-genericx64 – A Profile for Linux ubuntu-4.10.0-42-generic x64
VistaSP0x64 – A Profile for Windows Vista SP0 x64
VistaSP0x86 – A Profile for Windows Vista SP0 x86
VistaSP1x64 – A Profile for Windows Vista SP1 x64
VistaSP1x86 – A Profile for Windows Vista SP1 x86
VistaSP2x64 – A Profile for Windows Vista SP2 x64
VistaSP2x86 – A Profile for Windows Vista SP2 x86
Win10x64 – A Profile for Windows 10 x64
Win10x64_10586 – A Profile for Windows 10 x64 (10.0.10586.306 / 2016-04-23)
Win10x64_14393 – A Profile for Windows 10 x64 (10.0.14393.0 / 2016-07-16)
Win10x64_15063 – A Profile for Windows 10 x64 (10.0.15063.0 / 2017-04-04)
Win10x86 – A Profile for Windows 10 x86
Win10x86_10586 – A Profile for Windows 10 x86 (10.0.10586.420 / 2016-05-28)
Win10x86_14393 – A Profile for Windows 10 x86 (10.0.14393.0 / 2016-07-16)
Win10x86_15063 – A Profile for Windows 10 x86 (10.0.15063.0 / 2017-04-04)
Win2003SP0x86 – A Profile for Windows 2003 SP0 x86
Win2003SP1x64 – A Profile for Windows 2003 SP1 x64
Win2003SP1x86 – A Profile for Windows 2003 SP1 x86
Win2003SP2x64 – A Profile for Windows 2003 SP2 x64
Win2003SP2x86 – A Profile for Windows 2003 SP2 x86
Win2008R2SP0x64 – A Profile for Windows 2008 R2 SP0 x64
Win2008R2SP1x64 – A Profile for Windows 2008 R2 SP1 x64
Win2008R2SP1x64_23418 – A Profile for Windows 2008 R2 SP1 x64 (6.1.7601.23418 / 2016-04-09)
Win2008SP1x64 – A Profile for Windows 2008 SP1 x64
Win2008SP1x86 – A Profile for Windows 2008 SP1 x86
Win2008SP2x64 – A Profile for Windows 2008 SP2 x64
Win2008SP2x86 – A Profile for Windows 2008 SP2 x86
Win2012R2x64 – A Profile for Windows Server 2012 R2 x64
Win2012R2x64_18340 – A Profile for Windows Server 2012 R2 x64 (6.3.9600.18340 / 2016-05-13)
Win2012x64 – A Profile for Windows Server 2012 x64
Win2016x64_14393 – A Profile for Windows Server 2016 x64 (10.0.14393.0 / 2016-07-16)
Win7SP0x64 – A Profile for Windows 7 SP0 x64
Win7SP0x86 – A Profile for Windows 7 SP0 x86
Win7SP1x64 – A Profile for Windows 7 SP1 x64
Win7SP1x64_23418 – A Profile for Windows 7 SP1 x64 (6.1.7601.23418 / 2016-04-09)
Win7SP1x86 – A Profile for Windows 7 SP1 x86
Win7SP1x86_23418 – A Profile for Windows 7 SP1 x86 (6.1.7601.23418 / 2016-04-09)
Win81U1x64 – A Profile for Windows 8.1 Update 1 x64
Win81U1x86 – A Profile for Windows 8.1 Update 1 x86
Win8SP0x64 – A Profile for Windows 8 x64
Win8SP0x86 – A Profile for Windows 8 x86
Win8SP1x64 – A Profile for Windows 8.1 x64
Win8SP1x64_18340 – A Profile for Windows 8.1 x64 (6.3.9600.18340 / 2016-05-13)
Win8SP1x86 – A Profile for Windows 8.1 x86
WinXPSP1x64 – A Profile for Windows XP SP1 x64
WinXPSP2x64 – A Profile for Windows XP SP2 x64
WinXPSP2x86 – A Profile for Windows XP SP2 x86
WinXPSP3x86 – A Profile for Windows XP SP3 x86

Address Spaces
————–
AMD64PagedMemory – Standard AMD 64-bit address space.
ArmAddressSpace – Address space for ARM processors
FileAddressSpace – This is a direct file AS.
HPAKAddressSpace – This AS supports the HPAK format
IA32PagedMemory – Standard IA-32 paging address space.
IA32PagedMemoryPae – This class implements the IA-32 PAE paging address space. It is responsible
LimeAddressSpace – Address space for Lime
LinuxAMD64PagedMemory – Linux-specific AMD 64-bit address space.
MachOAddressSpace – Address space for mach-o files to support atc-ny memory reader
OSXPmemELF – This AS supports VirtualBox ELF64 coredump format
QemuCoreDumpElf – This AS supports Qemu ELF32 and ELF64 coredump format
SkipDuplicatesAMD64PagedMemory – Windows 8/10-specific AMD 64-bit address space.
VMWareAddressSpace – This AS supports VMware snapshot (VMSS) and saved state (VMSS) files
VMWareMetaAddressSpace – This AS supports the VMEM format with VMSN/VMSS metadata
VirtualBoxCoreDumpElf64 – This AS supports VirtualBox ELF64 coredump format
WindowsAMD64PagedMemory – Windows-specific AMD 64-bit address space.
WindowsCrashDumpSpace32 – This AS supports windows Crash Dump format
WindowsCrashDumpSpace64 – This AS supports windows Crash Dump format
WindowsCrashDumpSpace64BitMap – This AS supports Windows BitMap Crash Dump format
WindowsHiberFileSpace32 – This is a hibernate address space for windows hibernation files.

Scanner Checks
————–
CheckPoolSize – Check pool block size
CheckPoolType – Check the pool type
KPCRScannerCheck – Checks the self referential pointers to find KPCRs
MultiPrefixFinderCheck – Checks for multiple strings per page, finishing at the offset
MultiStringFinderCheck – Checks for multiple strings per page
PoolTagCheck – This scanner checks for the occurance of a pool tag[/php]

Para obtermos mais informações sobre um dump de memória podemos usar o plugin imageinfo para identificar que perfil podemos utilizar ou ainda identificar que sistema operativo foi capturado o dump de memória.

[php]$ python vol.py imageinfo -f WIN8-20171104-182725.raw
Volatility Foundation Volatility Framework 2.6
INFO : volatility.debug : Determining profile based on KDBG search…
Suggested Profile(s) : Win8SP0x64, Win81U1x64, Win2012R2x64_18340, Win2012R2x64, Win2012x64, Win8SP1x64_18340, Win8SP1x64
AS Layer1 : SkipDuplicatesAMD64PagedMemory (Kernel AS)
AS Layer2 : FileAddressSpace (/home/rickinho/MemoryAnalisys/WIN8-20171104-182725.raw)
PAE type : No PAE
DTB : 0x1a7000L
KDBG : 0xf800764a0a30L
Number of Processors : 1
Image Type (Service Pack) : 0
KPCR for CPU 0 : 0xfffff800764fb000L
KUSER_SHARED_DATA : 0xfffff78000000000L
Image date and time : 2017-11-04 18:27:38 UTC+0000
Image local date and time : 2017-11-04 16:27:38 -0200
[/php]

Como podemos ver, agora podemos começar a utilizar o volatility para começar dados em memória como programas e conexões de rede, isto vai nos permitir conseguir mais informações sobre uma possível máquina que esteja infectada por um malware.

Por hoje ficamos por aqui, até ao próximo artigo…

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